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大型电机维修标准资料

来源:子昂电机维修 日期:2020-07-07 16:39:37

 大型电机维修标准资料.jpg

1、电动机通电后不启动

该故(gu)障(zhang)除了电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源回路(lu)(lu)(lu)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)绕(rao)(rao)组(zu)不(bu)良(liang)外(wai),大多(duo)是电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)异常。电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)扇、排风扇、洗衣(yi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)等(deng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)一般采用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)器启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)运(yun)转;而(er)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)冰箱、冷(leng)柜等(deng)的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)多(duo)采用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻分(fen)相启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)运(yun)转,一旦启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)中的电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)器或(huo)分(fen)相电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻损坏(huai),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)就(jiu)不(bu)能(neng)正常运(yun)转,检修时(shi)应先排除启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)故(gu)障(zhang)后再查电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)故(gu)障(zhang)。若启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)(lu)正常,则(ze)可能(neng)是电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)内部绕(rao)(rao)组(zu)局(ju)部短路(lu)(lu)(lu)或(huo)断路(lu)(lu)(lu),可用(yong)万用(yong)表R×1挡测各(ge)绕(rao)(rao)组(zu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻值来判断。如电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)冰箱压缩机(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji),正常情况(kuang)下(xia)启(qi)(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)绕(rao)(rao)组(zu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻值约为23Ω,运(yun)行(xing)绕(rao)(rao)组(zu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻值为10Ω左右,起(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)和运(yun)行(xing)串接绕(rao)(rao)组(zu)正常阻值应为两者之和。

2、电动机转速慢而无力

电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)在(zai)通(tong)电(dian)(dian)后转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速慢(man)而(er)无力时,对于电(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)启动式电(dian)(dian)机(ji)大(da)多为(wei)电(dian)(dian)容(rong)(rong)器(qi)容(rong)(rong)量不足、漏电(dian)(dian)严(yan)(yan)重或电(dian)(dian)源电(dian)(dian)压(ya)过低;此外鼠(shu)笼(long)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)子铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)部(bu)分如果有严(yan)(yan)重的(de)缺损(sun)及断条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)情况,特别(bie)是(shi)洗衣机(ji)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)经常启动和正(zheng)反交替运(yun)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan),转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)子铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)较(jiao)大(da)的(de)感应电(dian)(dian)流易使转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)子铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)断裂,也导致运(yun)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)慢(man)而(er)无力。当发现铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)有裂缝时,可用手电(dian)(dian)钻在(zai)裂缝间钻一(yi)个小(xiao)孔,用相应的(de)铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)丝(si)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)嵌入孔内(nei),然后将其(qi)敲平铆死(si),最(zui)后用钢锉和砂纸打磨平整光滑(hua)即可。若铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)断裂面较(jiao)大(da)时,有条(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)(tiao)件的(de)可采用铝(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)(lv)丝(si)气焊的(de)方法(fa)加以修补。

3、电动机外壳带电

一般要求电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)泄(xie)漏(lou)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)不应(ying)大于(yu)0.8mA,以(yi)保证人身(shen)安全。电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)外(wai)壳漏(lou)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)主要原因有电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)内某引(yin)出(chu)线绝(jue)缘破损并碰触壳体;电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)绕(rao)组(zu)局(ju)部烧毁引(yin)起(qi)定(ding)(ding)子(zi)与外(wai)壳间漏(lou)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。较(jiao)多见(jian)的(de)是(shi)长期处于(yu)高(gao)湿环境,导致(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)受(shou)潮绝(jue)缘降低而使机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)壳带电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。此时,可(ke)用摇表测(ce)量(liang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)各绕(rao)组(zu)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)壳间的(de)绝(jue)缘电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)值,若在(zai)2MΩ以(yi)下,则说明电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)已受(shou)潮严重,应(ying)将(jiang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)定(ding)(ding)子(zi)绕(rao)组(zu)进行(xing)烘烤(kao)去(qu)潮处理。

大型电机维修标准资料.jpg

4、电动机运转时温升加剧

各类家用单(dan)相电动(dong)机(ji)在正常工(gong)作状态(tai)下(xia),其(qi)电机(ji)壳(qiao)体表(biao)面(mian)温度一般比环境温度高20℃左(zuo)右,最高温升不应高于(yu)70℃。如果(guo)电机(ji)工(gong)作几分钟后出(chu)现壳(qiao)体表(biao)面(mian)温度剧升,且机(ji)内散(san)发焦油味甚至冒(mao)烟,则(ze)为(wei)电机(ji)过热故(gu)障。电机(ji)过热温升的原因,主要有电机(ji)自身质(zhi)量问题;电机(ji)长期处于(yu)超负荷运行状态(tai)(传动(dong)机(ji)构故(gu)障引起(qi)电机(ji)负荷大);电机(ji)散(san)热条件差;电机(ji)绕组局部(bu)短(duan)路等。其(qi)中较常见的是绕组匝间 短(duan)路,可(ke)拆开(kai)机(ji)壳(qiao)检查绕组。如果(guo)线(xian)包无(wu)烧毁(hui)现象,可(ke)将定子重新进(jin)行浸漆绝缘(yuan)处理,然后烘干。若线(xian)包有局部(bu)烧毁(hui),那只有更换(huan)绕组线(xian)包。

5、电动机运行噪声大

电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)工作(zuo)噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng)大(da),一(yi)般有两种(zhong)原因,一(yi)是(shi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng),主要是(shi)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)轴(zhou)承磨(mo)损和(he)(he)缺(que)油,产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)硬摩擦噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng)。对(dui)此可清洗后加入润滑(hua)脂减少噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng)。当转子轴(zhou)与(yu)轴(zhou)承松(song)动(dong)或(huo)端盖松(song)动(dong)时,也会使电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)在旋转时产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)轴(zhou)向窜动(dong)发出(chu)噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng)。也有一(yi)些(xie)装配质量差的电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji),轴(zhou)承室(shi)不同心(xin),电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)径向间隙(xi)不均匀等均会产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)异(yi)常噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng)。对(dui)此,只要拆下外(wai)盖和(he)(he)后内(nei)盖,取出(chu)转子和(he)(he)定子座,重新敲铆内(nei)盖的中(zhong)心(xin)轴(zhou)即可应急修复。另(ling)外(wai),一(yi)些(xie)罩极式电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的短路环松(song)动(dong)或(huo)铁心(xin)松(song)动(dong)而产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)电(dian)磁噪(zao)(zao)声(sheng),应采(cai)取夹紧措施。